Africa is the continent with the fastest growing populations (United Nations, 2011) with coastal regions projected to experience the highest rates of population growth in coming decades (Vafeidis et al., 2011). At the continental level, East Africa has the second highest rate of population growth, after the Central African region (Ashton and Turton, 2009), while having the lowest renewable freshwater resource of Sub-Saharan Africa (Braun and Xu, 2010). In the Mozambique Channel region, the populations of the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania have quadrupled in the last 50 years (World Bank, 2014a), twice the global average and growing. Most of the population increase is in urban areas, which are already densely populated and where water resources, particularly groundwater which is often the only source of water of acceptable quality, are already under intense pressure (Steyl and Dennis, 2010; MacDonald et al., 2012; Walraevens et al., 2015). Recent papers have shown the importance of
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